Lightning Introduction

Lightning Certification of Transport Aircraft A summary of all required tasks Lightning protection of aircraft is a large, multi-year program for any aircraft certification effort. The tasks are further complicated by the use of composites as the structural material. The approach presented has emerged as a best practice for lightning certification. By leveraging state-of-the-art simulation and […]

Model of a full-aircraft with a return conductor system for the simulation. The cockpit and empennage have been omitted as they are unnecessary in this wing simulation.

Indirect Effects

Indirect Effects of Lightning (IEL) Table of contents: 1. Indirect effects of Lightning 1.1 Specify Initial Transient Control Levels (TCLs) 1.2 Design Guidance for IEL 1.3 Design Circuit Protection 1.4 Evaluate the Performance of Structures, Interfaces and Cables 1.5 Determine Actual Transient Levels (ATLs) for the Aircraft 1.6 Validate Analysis 1.7 Conformed Equipment and Subsystem […]

Full-wave simulation of current density on a tiltrotor

Direct Effects

Direct Effects of Lightning(DEL) Table of contents: 1. Indirect effects of Lightning 2. Direct Effects of Lightning 2.1 Zoning Assignment 2.2 Set Current Distribution in Structures 2.3 Evaluate the Performance of Structures to Lightning Arc Attachment and Conducted Current 2.4 Design Guidance for DEL 2.5 Component and Representative Coupon Testing at High Current/High Voltage 2.6 […]

EMA helped Douglas Aerospace save $1.6 M on the MD-90 indirect effects certification.

Fuel Systems 25.981

Lightning Fuel Systems 25.981 Table of contents: 1. Indirect effects of Lightning 2. Direct Effects of Lightning 3. Lightning Fuel Systems 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Regulatory and Program Planning/Reporting 3.3 Characterization of the EM Performance of Individual Structures and Systems 3.4 Establishment of Failure Modes 3.5 Determination of the Electromagnetic Environment during All Scenarios 3.6 Coupon […]

Protection of Aircraft

Lightning Protection of Aircraft Handbook By: Franklin A. Fisher and J. Anderson Plumer Commissioned by the FAA   This is the canonical handbook for engineers seeking to understand the effects of lightning on aircraft as well as practical measures for protecting aircraft against lightning effects. This handbook has been the basis of instructional courses in lightning protection. […]

Lightning Certification

Guidance Flowchart: P-Static and Lightning Certification Steps for Transport Category (Part 25) Aircraft   In the aircraft certification world it is easy to get stuck in the quagmire of the various FARs, ACs, and ARPs. That’s why we at EMA® put together a handy flowchart of guidance documents one can use when thinking about precipitation static […]

Leaders approach an aircraft

Lightning Zoning

By Tim McDonald Lightning zoning for aircraft involves separating each aircraft outer surface area into a specific category based on its likelihood for lightning attachment, lightning sweep and lightning hang-on. The steps required are detailed in SAE ARP 5414A: Aircraft Zoning. The task is divided into two sections: Determination of the initial attachment locations Zoning based […]

Pyro Heating

In terms of safety of mission, air and space pyrotechnic and ordnance components are of primary concern on many aerospace vehicles.  In this context, pyrotechnic and ordnance components refer to explosives which are designed to ignite at certain predetermined stages of a mission.  For example, the ordnance may allow a rocket to drop sections of […]

Thermal Modeling

EMA® has a multi-physics platform through which to simulate and quantify the direct effects of lightning. The following content illustrates our analysis applied to a sample problem. Thermal heating is one of the primary Direct Effects (DE) of lightning.  When large current loads are forced through regions of moderate resistance, energy is deposited into structures […]

Preventing Arcing

Designing Bond Requirements to Prevent Arcing on Aircraft Wing EMA3D® simulation can be used to determine how much current will flow through a seam or joint in a bond. This metric can then be used to determine what impedance requirement should be placed upon a particular bond. This simple example shows how an aircraft designer can […]